A fire pump is a part of a fire sprinkler, internal and external Hydrant system’s water supply and can be powered by electric, diesel pump. The pump intake is connected to the independent fire sump. The pump provides water flow at a higher pressure to the sprinkler system, risers and hose stand pipes.
A fire pump is tested and listed for its use specifically for fire service by a third-party testing and listing agency, such as UL or FM Global. The main code that governs fire pump installations is the National Fire Protection Association’s NFPA 20 Standard for the Installation of Stationary Fire Pumps for Fire Protection.
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Major Components of Pump Room Equipment :-
PIPING: For sizes 200 mm dia and below, GI Class ‘C’ (Heavy) pipes are used so as to prevent corrosion as also to withstand the desired working pressure. Above 200 mm dia., MS Class ‘C’ (Heavy) pipes are used.
JOCKEY PUMP: This is a pump with a nominal pumping capacity which starts automatically during a pressure drop in the pipe line and stops automatically after the set pressure is reached. This pump compensates for marginal pressure drop in the system due to system tests or minor leakages in the system. This pump can build up small pressure drops of about 2Kg/sq cm. i.e., this pump starts (cuts in) at 5.5 -6.0 Kg/ sq cm and stops (cuts off) at 7Kg/sq cm. Pressure setting is done by means of Pressure switch and is connected to the Pump Control Panel.
ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN MAIN PUMP: This is the main pump of the system which automatically comes into operation when the pressure drop in the pipeline exceeds 3Kg/ sq cm i.e., when a Hydrant Outlet/Sprinkler Point is operated causing constant discharge of water and the Jockey Pump is unable to build up the constant pressure. The Jockey Pump cuts off at the instant the Main Pump cuts in. This pump can only be stopped manually since automatic stopping will cause repeated operations and results in pump misalignment. Pressure setting is done by means of Pressure switch and is connected to the Pump Control Panel
DIESEL ENGINE DRIVEN STANDBY PUMP: The function of this pump is similar to that of the Main Pump except that this pump takes over the system in the event of a power supply failure to the Main Pump and the pressure drops below 4kg/sqcm. Like the Main Pump, this pump starts automatically and can be stopped manually. Pressure setting is done by means of Pressure switch and is connected to the Pump Control Panel. The engine driven pump is provided with a fuel tank to ensure continuous storage and supply of diesel to the engine.
FIRE PUMP CONTROL PANEL: The Fire Pump Control Panel as the name suggests has all the controls related to the pumps. On receipt of a signal from the pressure switch, this panel ensures sequential operation of pumps at a pre-set pressure settings. The panel also has facility to manually start the pump as and when required. The Fire Pump Panel indicates the incoming AC Power status, and other parameters such as ‘PUMP ON’, ‘OVER LOAD RELAY TRIP’, ‘SINGLE PHASE PREVENTOR TRIP’, ‘LOW OIL PRESSURE’, ‘HIGH WATER TEMPERATURE’, ‘ENGINE FAIL TO START’.
VALVES & ACCESSORIES: Butterfly valves are provided at various strategic locations on the piping network to facilitate isolation of a pipe segment for maintenance purposes. Non Return Valves (Check Valves) are provided on the delivery side of the pump to avoid return of water from the piping network into the water source. Air release valves are provided on the top- most points of the piping network so as to purge any air lock in the pipe line. In addition, an Air Vessel Tank is provided near the pumps.